Good technique crucial to being an efficient swimmer

June 17, 2013 at 1:17 a.m.

Of the three disciplines of triathlon, swimming is generally the one that makes novice triathletes the most anxious.

Sometimes, even putting your face into the water and learning how to breathe properly can be a difficult technique to master.

Enlisting the help of a coach or experienced swimmer to help identify potential stroke issues can be helpful, and many times it takes just a few sessions for athletes to gain a better grasp on swimming and perfect the drills that will lead them to a higher proficiency of swimming.

However, as with anything, the more practice, the better.

Any experienced swimmer or swim coach will agree that good swimming technique and body position are the most important factors in becoming a faster and stronger swimmer.

Shear power and strength alone does not always equal a powerful swimmer. In a study that was done at the Olympics in Atlanta in 1996, swimming specialists counted the number of strokes each of the finalists took to get down the length of the pool. They found that the swimmers who took the fewest number of strokes were the ones who finished with the fastest times. This proves that an efficient stroke leads to fewer strokes and better times.

Getting started

Getting started is usually the toughest part. If you are new to swimming, it can be intimidating at first.

I usually tell people it takes 4-6 weeks of consistent swimming (two to three times per week) to start feeling comfortable in the water.

If you are new to swimming, seek out the help of a friend you think may be a good swimmer and who can give you some pointers. Some of our local gyms also offer swim lessons that you can sign up for.

To figure out how to breathe appropriately, you can stand in the shallow end for a bit to get your stroke and breathing down correctly.

Another way to develop your breathing pattern is by using a kickboard. Start with both hands on the board and holding the board out in front of you. With your face in the water and legs kicking, alternate letting go with one arm, stroking and breathing on that side and then continue with the opposite arm.

Body position in the water

Many swimmers hold their head too high in the water. This can create resistance when you swim.

The most efficient position to have while swimming is to practice "pushing" your head down into the water and lifting up your hips. Focus on looking directly down at the line at the bottom of the pool lane.

Also, imagine your body as the letter "T" while swimming. Imagine a line going from the base of your neck to base of your coccyx. The horizontal line of the "T" goes across the top of your line, connecting your shoulders.

The stroke

Your pull, or arm stroke, is probably the most important part of your swim stroke.

As a triathlete, you will want to mostly utilize your arm pull so that your legs aren't taxed so much during the swim and are fresh to carry you through the bike and run portions of the triathlon.

The entry is where your front arm enters the water and starts the pull portion. The hand is turned slightly outward as it enters to "slice" the water. Make sure to extend the arm stroke to help create momentum. As the pull begins under the water, your hand should make an "S" shaped motion as it pulls from the top of the stroke through to your hip area.

Also, by maintaining a slight bend in the arm as you pull it under underneath you, the stronger your pull will be.

As the arm begins to exit the water, the elbow bends about a 90-degree bend. As the hand exits the water, you "flick" the water, which further helps to propel you through the water.

Remember to keep a high elbow as each arm exits the water, while extending the reach as far out as possible and keeping the hand in alignment with the shoulder as it reaches but not whipping the arms out to the sides.

This will help you in moving more water and moving you through it at a stronger pace.

Drills to define technique

From the novice swimmer to the most advanced swimmers, drills during a swim session will help you perfect good technique.

Drills should be incorporated into one or two of your swim sessions each week. Vary the drills that you do, with some that are focused on targeting problem swim areas you may have.

The amount of drag or resistance you create increases in direct proportion to how fast you go.

If you can become more efficient, creating less drag, you will save energy during the swim.

During your swim sessions, constantly think about how big a "tube" you are cutting through the water and try to make the tube narrow as you swim.

Practice counting your strokes as you swim a length of the pool. With each successive length, try to take fewer strokes to make it across the pool. This will help you focus more on the full pull of the stroke, making for a stronger arm pull.

Swimming with a fisted hand instead of open hand during a swim drill will help you focus on a strong pull as well. By creating more resistance with the fisted hand, you naturally use your entire arm during the pull. Using one-armed drills will also help you concentrate on your pulling action.

Swim alternate lengths of the pool using one arm only, while the other arm is straight out in front of you.

Using a kickboard and doing four to six lengths of just kicking each swim session will help you to strengthen this component of swimming.

Focus on keeping ankles and feet relaxed and maintaining short, fast kicking motion. Using a pull buoy (positioned between your thighs) will help you get stronger with your pull.

By doing several sets of just pulling, the arms will strengthen and the focus is on creating a strong, complete pull with each arm.

Missy Janzow owns Fit4U, a personalized coaching and nutrition service. You can reach her with your questions at janzowml@ya



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